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    ORCHIDS AT THE NIAGARA REGION ORCHID SHOW     PAGE 2

BY BRUCE ZIMMERMAN

In November the Niagara Regional Orchid Society held it's Annual Orchid Show. These are some of my favourite shots of the Orchids. They are just some of the one hundred and ten pictures I took. The care of each is listed with them. Their care may vary slightly with each variety, inter-generic crosses and the environmental conditions they are grown in. 

Orchid Laeliocattleya  Angel X Laeliocattleya Angel 
Bright light but not in direct sunlight. Shade to Bright; 1500-2500 Foot candles (indirect light, shadowing) Will not tolerate fluctuations or temps. below 13C 55F. 
Orchid LC Phra Nakon Khiri Laeliocattleya Phra Nakon Khiri x Cattleya Nettasiri Beauty
Growing temps above 21C (70F) then spray foliage daily and use humidity trays. Water normally while growing allowing the 
Laeliocattleya Mem Lieutenant Bracey
waterings.  After flowering rmixture to dry out almost completely between equires a 6 week rest by greatly reducing the watering. Feed with orchid food every 3-4 
Laeliocattleya Copper Glen XCantaloupe
weeks. Repot when pot full at the end of the dormant period in a mixture of osmunda fiber and sphagnum moss. After 
Laeliocattleya Purple Coerulea Sky Blue
division keep in medium light for 1-2 months watering sparingly.   
Orchid Ludisia Discolor Ludisia Discolour
Shade; 500-1500 Foot candles (indirect low light, slight shadowing) Intermediate to Warm; 58F min. to 88F max. It is grown in a mixture of Orchid bark and sphagnum moss. The mixture is always moist but never wet.
Orchid Lyc Skinneri. Lycaste Skinneri
Bright; 2500-3500 Foot candles (very bright indirect light)
Intermediate; 55F min. to 85F max. Moist / Dry; 1-3 waterings per week let dry betwn waterings)
  Growing medium is a mixture of orchid bark an sphagnum moss or osmunda fiber. They require lots of water but must never be wet. After flowering it requires a rest period at lower temps and very little water. Good ventilation is important.
Orchid Miltassia Shelob Tolkien Miltassia Shelob Tolkien
Medium to High indirect light, North, East or diffused West window. Water 2-3 times a week . Occasional misting of leaves and roots is appreciated. Grows 
Orchid Mitassia Charles M Fitch Miltassia Charles M Fitch x Parc Monarch
continuously during the year Med-High indirect light, North, East or diffused West window. Water 2-3 times a week . 
Occasional misting of leaves and roots is 
Orchid Mitassia Everglade Miltassia Everglades Queen
appreciated. Grows continuously during the year
Orchid Miltonia Raspberry Miltonia Raspberry
Cool, Intermediate to Warm; 40F min. to 95F max. (favoring cool tolerant of extremes ) Bright; 2500-3500 Foot candles (very bright indirect light) Summer, Fall Blooming Moist; 3-5 waterings per week (let dry lightly between waterings
Orchid Miltonia Hudson Bay Miltonia Hudson Bay
Cool, Intermediate to Warm; 40F min. to 95F max. (favoring cool tolerant of extremes ) Bright; 2500-3500 Foot candles (very bright indirect light) Summer, Fall Blooming Moist; 3-5 waterings per week (let dry lightly between waterings.
Orchid Miltonia Spectabilis Miltonia Spectabilis
Cool, Intermediate to Warm; 40F min. to 95F max. (favoring cool tolerant of extremes ) Bright; 2500-3500 Foot candles (very bright indirect light) Summer, Fall Blooming Moist; 3-5 waterings per week (let dry lightly between waterings.
Orchid Onc Aloha Iwanoga Di Ciommo Oncidium Aloha Iwanoga Di Ciommo
(Cyrtochilum)
Lots of direct sunlight 2 to 5000 foot candles except during the middle of the hottest days. Grows a 18 C (64 F) Intermediate to Cool; 52F min. to 80F max. Mist daily and provide 
Orchid Onc Tiger Crow Golden Oncidium Tiger Crow Golden Girl
humidity trays. In winter or after flowering 
provide a rest period of 4 weeks at 13C (55 F) water very sparingly. Moist; 3-5 waterings per 
Orchid OSC Onustum Oncidium Onustum
week (let dry lightly  between waterings)
While growing water in moderation allowing about have the mixture to dry out between 
Orchid Onc Twinkle Fragrance Fantasy Oncidium Twinkle Fragrance Fantasy
waterings. Feed with Orchid Food every 3-4 weeks. Repot every spring or every other year into a 2 parts osmunda fiber 1 part sphagnum moss and a little sand. Place in 
direct light for 6 weeks.
Orchid Paph Hampshire White Paphiopedilum Hampshire White
Bright indirect light 1000 foot candles for mottled leaf varieties, 2 to 3000 foot candles for those with green leaves with additional fluorescent in the autumn and winter. 
Orchid Paph Joggae Paphiopedilum Joggae
Growing temp. is 21C 70F. With higher temps. mist daily and use humidity trays. After flowering a dormancy of 6 weeks is required. During dormancy the soil is kept just barely moist. 
Orchid Paph Mandiae x Curtish x Holdeni Paphiopedilum Mandiae x Curtish x Holdeni
Use an orchid food every 3-4 waterings while actively growing. Repot after flowering in a 2 parts osmunda fiber 1part sphagnum moss and a little sand. Cut the rhizomes into pieces. Do Not break the roots.
Orchid Paph villosum Paphiopedilum villosum
Orchid Paph villosum
Orchid Scharetzchen Phal Paphiopedilum Scharetzchen
Note that while the different varieties may have subtle different growing requirements the general rule is that if the leaves have spots on them require a winter
Orchids Phap Raisin Pie Paphiopedilum Raisin Pie x Magic Flame
temperature of 18C(65F) and the plain leaved ones a winter temperature of 13C (55F).
Orchid No Name Orchid No Name
Bright indirect light 1000 foot candles for mottled leaf varieties, 2 to 3000 foot candles for those with green leaves with additional fluorescent in the autumn and winter. Growing temp. is 21C 70F. With higher temps. mist daily and use humidity trays. After flowering a dormancy of 6 weeks is required. During dormancy the soil
Orchid Paph Barbigerum Paphiopedilum Barbigerum
is kept just barely moist. Use an orchid food every 3-4 waterings while actively growing. Repot after flowering in a 2 parts osmunda fiber 1part sphagnum moss and a little sand. Cut the rhizomes into pieces. Do Not break the roots.

Temperature:  The country or region of origin for each plant gives a guide to the plant's temperature needs. If your orchid originates from equatorial areas it experiences relatively constant temperatures; whether they live in the colder mountains or in the tropical jungles, there is little variability in temperature year round. Those that originate from the area of the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn experience broader fluctuations in the seasonal temperature.  If you are a beginner or don't have a controlled environment you should pick plants that have broader temperature range.  In northern climates you should choose Orchids that have require intermediate temperatures in the winter time. You may need extra light as well. 

Light: The terms "Shaded", "Bright", and "Full-Sun", are self explanatory. You may have to experiment a bit with a plant's location to get the right light and temperature combination. Most bright growing plants can handle early morning or late afternoon direct sunlight. The cooler your growing area, the more intense light your plants can handle without damage. Shady Orchids will still require a bright environment. A healthy looking plant that does not bloom is usually  getting too little light if all the other environmental conditions are correct. When growing under full sun remember that orchids like air movement which keep their leaves cool. Indoors, don't hesitate to supplement with growing lights. The lights will raise the air temperature and reduce the humidity.

Watering:  Water quality, frequency and duration are all vitally important in raising healthy orchids.
Orchids, especially those from high-elevations, are easily damaged by mineral salts (which are almost non-existent in their natural habitat). Always use good quality, clean water. Rainwater can be used but the best is the water though a filter system that use water purified by reverse osmosis, de-ionization, or distillation. Every time you water or mist you must use these types or purified water. Hard water contains  dissolved salts which is left behind on the growing medium, container and foliage. It appears as a white, chalky deposit that can kill  roots and burn leaves. Never ever use softened water because it is high in sodium (salt). It kills plants.

Watering frequency: It is almost impossible to over-water a bark mounted orchid, but easy to over-water one in a pot. Pay close attention to the texture and shape of the roots, leaves, and pseudo bulbs to gauge how often your plants need water. In between watering you can mist them occasionally to provide humidity Grouping plants together, placing your potted orchids on trays filled with gravel and water improves humidity.

Water duration:  A quick splash on a warm  day will evaporate before the roots can soak up what they need. Remember when it rains in the tropics, it rains in heavily. Water in the late afternoon or evenings during warm months and in the winter switch to a morning watering. When you water, soak the plant completely. The root ball in both potted and mounted plants needs to be thoroughly moistened. Some plants require a rest period (usually in the winter) during which watering is reduced or even suspended completely. 

Air Movement: All plants grow better with air movement. This keeps them cool and the movement strengthens the plant and builds stronger flower spikes. Indoors put a small fan in the area to ensure air movement.

I like to grow Phalaenopsis varieties because I find them the easiest for my growing conditions

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